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91.  JULY 2015 Issue
p.241

Legislation and Case Notes: Contract for the Grant of a Compliant Option to Purchase
Alvin W-L See  •  [2015] Sing JLS 241 (Jul)
An agreement for the sale and purchase of real property often begins with an option to purchase ("OTP").2 Usually, upon agreeing on the purchase price, the vendor will grant the purchaser an OTP in return for an option fee. During the specified option period, the vendor is bound to keep the property for the purchaser. This affords the purchaser an opportunity to reconsider his or her decision to purchase the property and time to source for financing for the purchase. If the purchaser decides to proceed with the purchase, he or she will exercise the OTP by the prescribed method and within the option period, upon which the vendor is obliged to complete the transaction. In Woo Kah Wai CA, the issue before the Court of Appeal was whether the vendors were contractually obliged to grant an OTP containing terms demanded by the purchaser in the first place. To determine whether a contract to this effect has arisen, it is necessary to examine the method by which the OTP was sought to be procured. This case provides the opportunity to consider how basic principles of contract formation apply in the process of procuring an OTP, and also how subtle legal distinctions between the different methods of procuring an OTP have bearing on practical matters.

92.  JULY 2015 Issue
p.251

Legislation and Case Notes: Enhancing Strata Management in Malaysia—Selected Aspects Strata Management Act 2013
Teo Keang Sood  •  [2015] Sing JLS 251 (Jul)
This article will assess the changes brought about by the SMA and the amendments in the following areas in respect of the period after the management corporation has been constituted: (i) the two-tier management corporation concept; (ii) the dispute resolution mechanism provided by way of the Strata Management Tribunal; (iii) the concept of common property; and (iv) voting by proxies.

93.  JULY 2015 Issue
p.261

Legislation and Case Notes: The Prevention of Human Trafficking Act 2014: Legislation Comment
Ronald J J Wong and Juay Wei Tian  •  [2015] Sing JLS 261 (Jul)
The Prevention of Human Trafficking Act 20141 developed by MP Christopher de Souza together with the Inter-Agency Taskforce on Trafficking in Persons set up in 2010, came into effect on 1 March 2015. POHTA is an important step in Singapore's anti-trafficking efforts. First, existing laws do not specifically address trafficking in persons ("TIP"), focus on outcomes rather than process, are couched in vague terms, and in some cases have not been utilised at all. For example, sexual exploitation cases with TIP elements are often prosecuted as prostitution-related offences under the Women's Charter 3 or the Penal Code. These aim towards protection of women and minors, not men. Further, such provisions do not distinguish between consensual and forced prostitution. Secondly, POHTA comprehensively provides for various aspects of tackling TIP, eg victim protection and enforcement procedures. Thirdly, it signals the seriousness with which the Government views TIP. In this note, we critically analyse POHTA, highlighting its issues and uncertainties which would, it is hoped, be addressed by the courts in the course of applying the POHTA.

94.  JULY 2015 Issue
p.273

Book Reviews: Causation in Negligence by Sarah Green
Samuel Chan  •  [2015] Sing JLS 273 (Jul)
Causation in the tort of negligence is a "legal minefield" that any philosopher, scientist or lawyer is to tread "with trepidation" (at p 1). To deal with causation, courts have developed an array of tests with seemingly no coherence. Should courts apply the 'doubling the risk' test or reverse the burden of proof? Or should the Fairchild exception apply? In Causation in Negligence, Sarah Green ambitiously proposes an analytical framework that "eschews detailed philosophical and theoretical handwringing in favour of pragmatic reasoning" (at p 1). Green claims that her framework, which she calls the Necessary Breach Analysis ("NBA"), provides an accessible way to approaching causal problems.

95.  JULY 2015 Issue
p.276

Book Reviews:Justice as Friendship—A Theory of Law by Tan Seow Hon
Ho Hock Lai  •  [2015] Sing JLS 276 (Jul)
As explained in the preface, this book is the product of a research project started a decade or so ago. It is based on a doctoral thesis. The author has wisely avoided a rush to publication. Her efforts have resulted in an ambitious and intriguing theory of justice and law. It is founded on the notion of friendship as explicated principally through the work of Aristotle. There is little written on friendship in law although there is an emerging body of literature on the related topics of law and love, and law and virtue.

96.  JULY 2015 Issue
p.278

Book Reviews: Accessory Liability by Paul S. Davies
Timothy Liau  •  [2015] Sing JLS 278 (Jul)
Conduct amounting to a breach of duty often causes loss to the person to whom the duty is owed. But sometimes the duty-holder in breach, being insolvent, is a man of straw not worth suit. Other times, the prospect of suit is unattractive given the possibility of jeopardising existing relations with the duty-holder. To seek an adequate remedy, one is then tempted to expand one's search to the surrounding circumstances leading up to the breach. So we peer up the chain of events. We search for persons—accessories—whose conduct contributed to the objectionable outcome. But the further up you go, the more diluted the contribution. And that presents a problem.

97.  JULY 2015 Issue
p.284

Book Reviews: Corporate Crime in China: History and Contemporary Debates by Zhou Zhenjie
Lin Lin  •  [2015] Sing JLS 284 (Jul)
Corporate crime has recently been raising public concern in China, with cases involving bribery and corruption (eg the 2014 GlaxoSmithKline bribery case), unsafe food (eg the 2008 Sanlu milk powder contamination scandal) and industrial accidents (eg the 2014 Kunshan metal product factory blast case). While there is much scholarly discussion on corporate crime in general, there is a paucity of English-written literature examining legislation and judicial practice concerning corporate crime in China.

98.  JULY 2015 Issue
p.287

Book Reviews: Law of Trade Marks and Passing Off in Singapore (3rd ed.) by Tan Tee Jim
Elizabeth Siew-Kuan Ng  •  [2015] Sing JLS 287 (Jul)
The long awaited third edition to Tan Tee Jim SC's comprehensive text on trade mark law in Singapore has finally arrived. It has been nearly a decade since the publication of the previous edition of this leading text. Drawing on applicable case law and legislation, the author provides a succinct and full discussion on the law of trade mark in Singapore. The significant developments in Singapore and elsewhere make this work timely and invaluable to all who are engaged in the area of trade mark law and practice. As noted by the author in the preface, some of the recent Singapore court decisions have necessitated an almost complete re-writing of a number of chapters in the work. By careful consideration and critical examination, the author elucidates the changes brought about by legislation and case law. Written by an eminent author and Senior Counsel with a wealth of knowledge and experience in this field, his 'ring-side' viewpoints offer an invaluable dimension to the commentaries on the leading decisions in this area.

99.  DECEMBER 2014 Issue
p.267

Recent (Non-) Developments in an Arrested Person's Right to Counsel
Ho Hock Lai  •  [2014] Sing JLS 267 (Dec)
The right of an arrested person to consult a lawyer has long been in contention. An especially contested issue is the point of time from which such access is constitutionally mandated. Part II contains an analysis of the recent judgments of the High Court and Court of Appeal on this topic. It examines the soundness of legal reasoning and interpretation at both levels. Part III enters into broader discussion. It explores alternative interpretations of the relevant constitutional provision, considers the fairness of the way in which the law has been applied, makes comparisons with the legal positions taken elsewhere, and reflects on principles in the administration of criminal justice that ought to shape our attitude towards this basic right.

100.  DECEMBER 2014 Issue
p.285

The Lemon Law and the Integrated Enhancement of Consumer Rights in Singapore
Alexander F H Loke  •  [2014] Sing JLS 285 (Dec)
European in inspiration and British in design, the Singapore Lemon Law seeks to provide consumers with more effective redress against defective products. The 6-month presumption of non-conformity reverses the burden of proving the cause for a defect appearing within 6 months of delivery; in so doing, it places the burden of proof on the party better able to investigate the cause for the defect. The new statutory remedies of repair, replacement, rescission and price reduction add to the armoury of remedies and enhance the consumer's interest in the due performance of the contract. While constituting a distinct regime with its own norms and principles of operation, the Lemon Law draws on and interacts with the existing sales law and consumer protection law. This article examines the potential complexities arising from the integrative aspects of the Lemon Law and the adaptation issues arising from the interaction between the Lemon Law and the general law.

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